The following day the workers of the International Railway Corporation (IRC) declared a strike after failing to obtain a raise. Les Allemands attaquent la Somme. Hundleby, Maxwell; Strasheim, Rainer (1990). Le premier char allemand - Sturmpanzerwagen A7V illustré (vidéo). Des soldats américains à bord de chars FT 17 en marche vers la forêt d’Argonne le 26 septembre 1918. Les Allemands, eux, renforcés par les troupes revenues du front de l’Est, pensent prendre l’avantage lors d’ultimes offensives. Grimly, Gram also reported that 690 new cases had been reported since noon on October 10 and that a further 42 people had succumbed to the disease. Outdoor church meetings were initially allowed by Dr. Gram and Mayor Buck, but when October 12 dawned cold and rainy, Dr. Gram forbade them, saying that, “If all churches in Buffalo were to hold outdoor services on Sunday, we would have at least 50,000 additional influenza cases by Tuesday and possibly 1,000 more deaths by Thursday.” Interestingly, meetings of the street car union were the one exception to the ban, with the caveat that they be held outdoors. L’Infanterie Belge. C'est là encore un mastodonte de 40 tonnes, équipé de 2 canons de 57 mm et de 4 à 6 mitrailleuses. L’armée allemande fut très en retard en ce domaine et seulement 20 chars A7V, des boîtes blindées peu manœuvrables, furent construits en 1918. That said, Gram did mention that the war and the epidemic already raging in Boston had virtually stripped Buffalo of medical professionals, saying: “I would not know where to get either doctors or nurses in Buffalo in case of emergency, for a majority of them are overseas.”. Articles sur A7V and variants à Landships II. - Je continue avec des taches en HUMBROL 160 brun-rouge allemand . Pour la toute première fois, des chars blindés sont utilisés sur le champ de bataille par les Britanniques. Il y a 80 ans, le 15 mai 1940, d’intenses combats débutaient dans le village de Stonne (Ardennes, région Grand-Est) entre les chars français et les blindés allemands. U.S. A must-have for the sports enthusiast on your list! Sturmpanzer A7V: First of the Panzers. Perhaps the most alarming aspect of this particular outbreak of the disease only became apparent once epidemiologists began counting the dead. But at this time the decision of whether or not to adopt such measures was largely left in local hands. Private Arthur Poole succumbed to the disease at Camp Custer in Michigan before he could test his bravery against the Kaiser’s guns. Au début de l'année 1918, deux conceptions stratégiques différentes se font jour. Tanks: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. Le premier exemplaire fut livré le 1er octobre 1917. They were spreading the disease in ever-widening ripples across the city. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicles. Ernest R. Goat, who made his living selling Chevrolets to the people of Buffalo, died and left behind a widow and two children, one of whom was also dying of the flu. In this context, Gram first floated the idea that Buffalo may have to submit to a quarantine. The symptoms of the disease were shocking even in a world 30 years or more away from the widespread application of antibiotics: the worst cases would go from walking around healthy to the usual signs of an oncoming flu, to prostration, scorching hot fever, delirium and eventually death in about a week, although some cases progressed markedly faster. En avril 1918, lors de la seconde bataille de Villers-Bretonneux, trois chars allemands A7V engagèrent trois chars britanniques Mark IV. Buffalo’s old Central High School on Niagara Square (at right of photo) was hastily converted to a 1,000-bed emergency hospital in an effort to contain and care for Buffalonians who had contracted influenza. Le 15 juillet 1918 sept A7V participèrent à une attaque contre les lignes françaises, sans pertes. Mention the flu to any group of people and it is likely that someone will report they had a grandparent, or increasingly, a great-grandparent, who died of the flu. For Americans, the flu pandemic began in the spring of 1918. Students were spared making up all of the class time they missed by Superintendent of Schools Ernest C. Hartwell, who added a half hour to each remaining school day and argued that, “Those in charge of making out Regent’s examinations [will have] to make them easier this year.” A small notice, consisting of two sentences, well below the fold on November 8 declared, “Influenza is no longer epidemic in Buffalo.” Three days later, the war ended and the world definitively moved on—or so it would seem. Buffalo acting Health Commissioner, Dr. F.C. This meant that doctors were not required to report cases to the local health authorities. A bustling downtown Buffalo—complete with shops, schools, theaters, saloons and streetcars—presented, like many other urban centers nationwide, ideal conditions for the flu to spread. Le fruit de ces travaux sort des atel… A Daladier qui s'en inquiétait, le général Gamelin aurait répondu: "C'est ce qu'on appelle un bulletin de renseignements de couverture, pour le cas où l'affaire tournerait mal". (Collection Patrice Lamy) (Agrandir la photo) 1 / 16. Citizens were told to stay home when sick, wear masks, stop spitting in public and stop shaking hands. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd. pp. @#$&*\-_). Courtesy U.S. National Library of Medicine. U.S. Social norms within Buffalo broke down quickly; one of the city’s Polish-language newspapers reported that priests were doing funerals assembly-line style, blessing a stream of caskets as they passed in front of the church. Les ingénieurs reçoivent un cahier des charges regroupant ces caractéristiques : un poids maximal de 30 tonnes, avec plusieurs mitrailleuses, un canon, une capacité de franchissement d’1,5 m de large, pouvant aller à une vitesse de 14 km/h, sur châssis de tracteur Holt. Hundleby, Maxwell; Strasheim, Rainer (2010). With a population of 475,000, Buffalo was the nation’s tenth largest city in 1918. Source : La Contemporaine, « Albums Valois », « Tanks britanniques capturés par les Allemands »,1918 Un char « lourd » (29t) : dépendance vis-à-vis du Their work in 1918 was complicated considerably by the war effort and the reluctance of President Woodrow Wilson’s administration to create any public panic that might interfere with the flow of troops and materiel to the front. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. The picture was a profile view that clearly showed how to tie a mask. Le 24 avril trois unités furent engagées à Villers-Bretonneux ou elles se heurtèrent à des Mark IV de la British Army dans ce qui fut le premier affrontement entre chars de combat. Chars allemands 14-18. On October 3, a photograph of nurses wearing gauze masks prepared to treat soldiers and sailors in a military hospital in Boston appeared in the newspapers. For the first time, a note of concern was sounded by a member of the executive branch. Les Allemands avaient pris du retard sur les Britanniques et les Français, mais ils firent grande impression. At about the same time, U.S. L'un des véhicules se renversa et fut récupéré par les troupes françaises, ce qui permit d'en connaître les points faibles. Le même Elfriede, sans son armement principal et en compagnie d'officiers français et britanniques. Malgré un effectif dix fois supérieur à celui des défenseurs, l'attaque se solda par un échec et sept chars furent détruits. When this happens, the body’s response is to send in volumes of antibodies and lymph. Bulletins and posters, like this one from Connecticut, were disseminated in an attempt to educate the population on measures to prevent the spread of influenza. Certains A7V eurent l'occasion de se mesurer à des chars anglais Mark IV, et subirent quelquefois des dommages : les plaques métalliques de l'A7V cassaient sous les impacts de calibres moyens. Il a été inauguré le 18 avril 1998. La transition. Throughout much of the following week the drumbeat of death notices continued, but the Buffalo newspapers did not run any follow-up on Gram’s “investigations” into the cases of the flu or on his plan for combatting it. That moniker is somewhat misleading, however. German Tanks in WWI – The A7V & Early Tank Development. Mortality on this scale is beyond recent human experience. Après les victoires allemandes du printemps, elle fut le prolongement de la seconde bataille de la Marne qui marqua, en juillet, le renversement décisif de la guerre sur le front ouest. In the wake of the opening, a year ago, of the John R. Oishei Children's Hospital, we take a look back at how the institution began—and grew. The medical officer in charge, Lieutenant Otis Chase, immediately quarantined the sailors and announced that, “I do not believe that the jackies are suffering from the real Spanish influenza…the malady resembles the old fashioned grippe of 20 years ago.” The ever-cautious Gram publicly agreed that it wasn’t the flu. Wölfersheim-Berstadt: Podzun-Pallas-Verlag GmbH. Doctors at the time called it “heliotrope cyanosis.”. En 4 jours, leur progression de plus de 50 kilomètres les amène à Château-Thierry. Sturmpanzerwagen A7V : vom Urpanzer zum Kampfpanzer Leopard 2 : ein Beitrag zur Militär- und Technikgeschichte. Après la Grande Guerre, ni la Grande-Bretagne ni les États-Unis ne portèrent autant d’attention à la question du perfectionnement des blindés que la Wehrmacht allemande; en sorte que les puissances alliées prirent un retard important dans ce domaine de recherche. Gates Circle has witnessed, not only a name change, but also a whole renovation in its lifetime. Le 501 e régiment de chars de combat est une unité de chars, créée le 13 mai 1918, qui s'est illustrée durant les deux conflits mondiaux, la guerre d'Indochine et la guerre d'Algérie. Le 27 mai 1918, à la suite d’un bombardement inouï alimenté par 1 158 batteries, les Allemands s’élancent à l’assaut du Chemin des Dames et atteignent le jour même la vallée de l’Aisne. George Fraley Jr., a scion of high society and a semi-pro golfer, died at the age of 18 before he could enter the class of 1922 at Yale. Gram. Chars allemands de la première guerre mondiale. Schneider, Wolfgang; Strasheim, Rainer (1990). Fabriqués par les Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerrannée (F.C.M), la commande fut résiliée à l'armistice et seuls 10 exemplaires furent livrés. Great Bookham, Surrey: Profile Publications. Gram was aware of the danger, as he had made the flu reportable on September 20 and the following day announced that he had devised a plan to fight influenza. By Tuesday, October 8, the news announced that 122 new cases of the flu had been reported and that a total of 456 cases and 33 fatalities had been reported to Dr. Gram since October 1. Evaluations fantaisistes. These measures ranged from totally quarantining a community and shutting down all places of entertainment, churches, schools and shops to public bans on spitting and mask requirements. Tankograd. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. Unlike a variety of other communicable diseases like yellow fever, typhoid, trachoma and even glanders, influenza was not a “reportable disease” in New York State at the beginning of 1918.